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Auralic Vega G2 Up and Running The first step in distancing their campaigns was declaring opposition to the annexation of Texas. Polk, on the other hand, took a hard stance on the issue, insisting on the annexation of Texas and, in a roundabout way, Oregon.
Enter Jackson, who knew that the American public favored westward expansion. He sought to run a candidate in the election committed to the precepts of manifest destiny, and at the Democratic Convention, Polk was nominated to run for the presidency.
Polk went on to win the popular vote by a razor-thin margin but took the electoral college handily. Polk took office on March 4, , and at 49 years of age, he became the youngest president in American history.
Before Polk took the oath of office, Congress offered annexation to Texas, and when they accepted and became a new state, Mexico severed diplomatic relations with the United States and tensions between the two countries escalated.
Regarding the Oregon territory, which was much larger than the current state of Oregon, President Polk would have to contend with England, who had jointly occupied the area for nearly 30 years.
Neither England nor the Polk administration wanted a war, and Polk knew that only war would likely allow the United States to claim the land.
This represented three young adults and most of a family, though not including the father, whom James Polk had previously owned, and who had been sold to a slave trader as a chronic runaway.
The expenses of four campaigns three for governor, one for the presidency in six years kept Polk from making more slave purchases until after he was living in the White House.
Instead, he reinvested earnings from his plantation in the purchase of slaves, enjoining secrecy on his agent: "that as my private business does not concern the public, you will keep it to yourself".
Polk saw the plantation as his route to a comfortable existence after his presidency for himself and his wife; he did not intend to return to the practice of law.
Hoping the increased labor force would increase his retirement income, he purchased seven slaves in , through an agent, aged roughly between 12 and The 17 year old and one of the 12 year olds were purchased together at an estate sale ; the agent within weeks resold the younger boy to Polk's profit.
The year saw the purchase of nine more. Three he purchased from Gideon Pillow, and his agent purchased six slaves, aged between 10 and By the time of the purchase from Pillow, the Mexican War had begun and Polk sent payment with the letter in which he offered Pillow a commission in the Army.
The purchase from Pillow was a slave Polk had previously owned and had sold for being a disruption, and his wife and child.
None of the other slaves Polk purchased as President, all younger than 20, came with a parent, and as only in the one case were two slaves bought together, most likely none had an accompanying sibling as each faced life on Polk's plantation.
Discipline for those owned by Polk varied over time. At the Tennessee plantation, he employed an overseer named Herbert Biles, who was said to be relatively indulgent.
Biles's illness in resulted in Polk replacing him with Ephraim Beanland, who tightened discipline and increased work. Polk backed his overseer, returning runaways who complained of beatings and other harsh treatment, "even though every report suggested that the overseer was a heartless brute".
His replacement was discharged after a year for being too indulgent; the next died of dysentery in Others followed, and it was not until that Polk found a satisfactory overseer, John Mairs, who remained the rest of Polk's life and was still working at the plantation for Sarah Polk in , when the widow sold a half-share in many of her slaves.
There had been a constant stream of runaways under Mairs' predecessors, many seeking protection at the plantation of Polk relatives or friends; only one ran away between the time of Mairs' hiring and the end of , but the overseer had to report three absconded slaves including the one who had fled earlier to Polk in and Polk's will, dated February 28, , a few days before the end of his presidency, contained the nonbinding expectation that his slaves were to be freed when both he and Sarah Polk were dead.
The Mississippi plantation was expected to be the support of Sarah Polk during her widowhood. Sarah Polk lived until , but the slaves were freed in by the Thirteenth Amendment , which abolished slavery in the United States.
Like Jackson, Polk saw the politics of slavery as a side issue compared to more important matters such as territorial expansion and economic policy.
On March 4, , new tombstones for three of his slaves, Elias Polk, Mary Polk and Matilda Polk, were placed in the Nashville City Cemetery.
Elias and Mary Polk both survived slavery, dying in the s; Matilda Polk died still in slavery in , at the age of about After his death, Polk's historic reputation was initially formed by the attacks made on him in his own time.
Whig politicians claimed that he was drawn from a well-deserved obscurity. Sam Houston is said to have observed that Polk, a teetotaler, was "a victim of the use of water as a beverage".
Polk was not again the subject of a major biography until , when Eugene I. McCormac published James K. Polk: A Political Biography. McCormac relied heavily on Polk's presidential diary, first published in Schlesinger Sr.
Borneman deemed Polk the most effective president prior to the Civil War, and noted that Polk expanded the power of the presidency, especially in its power as commander in chief and its oversight over the Executive Branch.
Calabresi and Christopher S. Yoo , in their history of presidential power, praised Polk's conduct of the Mexican War, "it seems unquestionable that his management of state affairs during this conflict was one of the strongest examples since Jackson of the use of presidential power to direct specifically the conduct of subordinate officers.
Harry S. Truman called Polk "a great president. Said what he intended to do and did it. The questions of the banking system, and of the tariff, which Polk had made two of the main issues of his presidency, were not significantly revised until the s.
Similarly, the Gadsden Purchase, and that of Alaska , were the only major U. Paul H. Bergeron wrote in his study of Polk's presidency: "Virtually everyone remembers Polk and his expansionist successes.
He produced a new map of the United States, which fulfilled a continent-wide vision. Merry concluded, "and to take in the western and southwestern expanse included in it, is to see the magnitude of Polk's presidential accomplishments.
With the help of his wife, Sarah, he masterminded, provoked and successfully prosecuted a war that turned the United States into a world power.
Rawley wrote in his American National Biography piece on Polk, "he added extensive territory to the United States, including Upper California and its valuable ports, and bequeathed a legacy of a nation poised on the Pacific rim prepared to emerge as a superpower in future generations".
David M. Pletcher . Historians have criticized Polk for not perceiving that his territorial gains set the table for civil war.
Pletcher stated that Polk, like others of his time, failed "to understand that sectionalism and expansion had formed a new, explosive compound".
Greenstein, in his journal article on Polk, noted that Polk "lacked a far-seeing awareness of the problems that were bound to arise over the status of slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico"  William Dusinberre, in his volume on Polk as slave owner, suggested "that Polk's deep personal involvement in the plantation slavery system The conflict Polk engineered became the transformative event of the era.
It not only changed the nation but also created a new generation of leaders, for good and for ill. In the military, Robert E.
Lee , Ulysses S. Grant , Stonewall Jackson , George Meade , and Jefferson Davis all first experienced military command in Mexico.
It was there that they learned the basis of the strategy and tactics that dominated the Civil War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other people with the same name, see James Polk disambiguation. Sarah Childress. Samuel Polk Jane Knox. Further information: President James K.
Polk Historic Site. Main articles: United States presidential election and James Polk presidential campaign.
Main article: Presidency of James K. Further information: Inauguration of James K. Main article: Oregon boundary dispute. Main article: Texas Annexation.
Main article: Mexican—American War. Disputed territory. United States territory, Mexican territory, After treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Main article: List of federal judges appointed by James K.
Main article: United States presidential election. To the retrospective eye of the historian Polk's alarums and excursions present an astonishing spectacle.
Impelled by his conviction that successful diplomacy could rest only on a threat of force, he made his way, step by step, down the path to war.
Then, viewing the war as a mere extension of his diplomatic scheme, he proceeded as confidently as a sleepwalker through a maze of obstacles and hazards to the peace settlement he had intended from the beginning.
See Dusinberre, p. Bailey, Presidential greatness: The image and the man from George Washington to the present pp. February American National Biography Online.
White House Historical Association. Retrieved January 26, Tennessee State Museum. Retrieved January 23, Retrieved November 23, Archived from the original on October 29, One of the 23 Virginia electors, and all of South Carolina's 11 electors, voted for Van Buren but defected to James K.
Polk and Littleton W. Tazewell of Virginia, respectively, in the vice-presidential contest. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.
Presidential Elections. Archived from the original on August 3, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.
Archived from the original on January 20, The Dead March: A History of the Mexican-American War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press , p Retrieved January 1, Archived from the original on June 6, Polk: a biographical companion p.
Retrieved December 31, Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved December 22, Searches run from page by choosing "select research categories" then check "court type" and "nominating president", then select type of court and James K.
Polk: Life After The Presidency". John C. October 4, Retrieved December 21, The Daily Herald. Columbia, Tennessee. Retrieved December 25, Washington Post.
Retrieved April 15, Associated Press. Retrieved March 26, Nashville Public Radio. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 13, Smithsonian Magazine.
The Smithsonian Institution. The Tennessean. November 9, The Tennessee Journal. Retrieved March 14, Polk slaves recognized at Nashville City Cemetery".
Retrieved March 5, Retrieved December 28, Bergeron, Paul H. The Presidency of James K. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press.
Borneman, Walter R. Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America. Parts and Suppliers - Improve the ownership experience, parts and service revenue, owner loyalty and retention.
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ACX Audiobook Publishing Made Easy.HiFi-Lautsprecher für großartigen Sound. Signature E-Serie entdecken. Polk Audio: Die Geschichte einer Marke. Wir gestalten hervorragenden Sound seit Tauchen Sie in Ihre Musik und Filme ein und genießen Sie den Sound unserere All-in-One Surround-Pakete. Jetzt entdecken. Jetzt entdecken. Polk Audio T50 Standlautsprecher, HiFi Lautsprecher für Musik und Heimkino Sound, passiver Full Range Lautsprecher, 20 - Watt, 8 Ohm, 38Hz – 24kHz. Polk Audio ist ein amerikanischer Hersteller von Audioprodukten, der vor allem für seine Heim- und Autolautsprecher bekannt ist. Das Unternehmen produziert auch eine breite Palette anderer Audioprodukte wie Verstärker und FM-Tuner. Der Hauptsitz. Kontakt PR-Agentur. HDMI 2. Amazon Warehouse Reduzierte B-Ware. Schwarz Walnuss.